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witricity full report
21-02-2010, 12:05 PM
Post: #1
witricity full report
[attachment=2383]

Seminar Report
WITRICITY
ABSTRACT
The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as witricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea, Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As witricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency.
INTRODUCTION
If we are particularly organized and good with tie wrap then also a few dusty power cord tangles around our home. We have even had to follow one particular cord through the seemingly impossible snarl to the outlet hoping that the plug pull will be the right one. This is one of the downfalls of electricity. While it can make people's lives easier, it can add a lot of clutter in the process. For these reasons, scientists have tried to develop methods of wireless power transmission that could cut the clutter or lead to clean sources of electricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea. Many researchers developed several methods for wireless power transmission. But witricity is a new technology used for wireless power transmission. By the use of this technology transmission of electrical energy to remote objects without wires can be possible. The inventors of witricity are the researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). They developed a new technology for wireless electricity transmission and this is based upon the coupled resonant objects. In this resonant magnetic fields are used. So the wastage of power is reduced. The system consists of witricity transmitters and receivers. The transmitters and receivers contain magnetic loop antennas made of copper coils and they are tuned to the same frequency.
METHODS USED FOR WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION
INDUCTION (INDUCTIVE COUPLING):
This is the first method used for wireless power transfer. The simplest example for wireless energy transfer using this method is the electrical transformer. In this the primary and secondary circuits are
electrically isolated from each other. The transfer of energy takes place by electromagnetic coupling through mutual induction. The main draw back of this method is the short range. For efficient working of a system which uses this method, the receiver must be in very close proximity to the-transmitter. A larger, stronger field can be used for energy transfer over lorjg distance, but this process is extremely inefficient. Since magnetic field spreads in all direction, making a large wastage of energy.
RESONANT INDUCTION (EVANESCENT WAVE COUPLING)
In 2006 MIT researchers discovered an efficient method to transfer power between coils separated by few meters. They extend the distance between coils in inductive coupling system by adding resonant. They demonstrated by sending electromagnetic waves around in a highly angular waveguide, evanescent waves are produced, which carry no energy. An evanescent wave is a near field standing wave exhibiting exponential decay with distance. Evanescent waves are always associated with matter, and are most intense within one-third wavelength from any radio antenna. Evanescent means tends to vanish, the intensity of evanescent waves decays exponentially with the distance from the interface at which they are formed. If a proper resonant waveguide is brought near the transmitter, the evanescent waves can allow the energy to tunnel to the power drawing wave guide. Since the electromagnetic waves would tunnel, they would not propagate through the air to be absorbed or dissipated and would not disrupt .electronic devices or cause physical injury like microwave or radio waves transmission.
In resonant induction method induction can take place a little differently if the electromagnetic fields around the coils resonate at the same frequency. In this a curved coils of wire uses as an inductor. A capacitance plate which can hold a charge attaches to each end of the coil. As electricity travels through this coil the coil begins to resonate. Its resonant frequency is a product of the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the piate. Unlike multiple layer secondary of non-resonant transformer single layer solenoids with closely spaced capacitor plates on each end as shown in figure 1 is used as transmitter and receiver.
Inductor Coil t
Capacitance Plate
©2O07 HawStufltfAxtta
Fig. 1
The MIT wireless power project uses a curved coil and capacitive plates.
Fig. 2
Electricity traveling along an electromagnetic wave can tunnel from one coil to the other as long as the both have the same resonant frequency. As long as both the coils are out of range of one another nothing will happen, since the field around the coil are not strong enough to affect much around them. Similarly if two coils resonate at different frequencies nothing will happen. Figure 2 shows the working of wireless power transmission.
By using resonant induction one coil can send electricity to several receiving coils as long as they all resonate at same frequency. The MIT team's preliminary work suggests that kind of setup could power or recharge all the devices in one room. Some modifications would be necessary to send power over long distances, like the length of a building or a city.
¦ Fig. 3
The figure 3 shows that a single transmitter can be used to charge several devices in a room.
The concept of witricity was made possible using resonance, where an object vibrates with the application Of a certain frequency of energy. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effect on the surrounding objects. To under stand the energy transfer using resonant method consider an example involves acoustic resonances. Imagine a room with 100 identical wine glasses, each filled with wine up to a different level, so they all have different resonant frequencies. This is because objects physical structure determines the resonant frequency. The frequency at which an object naturally vibrates is called resonant frequency. If a singer sings loudly inside the room, a glass of corresponding frequency might accumulate sufficient energy to even explode,
while not influencing the other. In all the system of coupled resonators there exists a strongly coupled regime of operation. These considerations are universal, applying to all kinds of resonances. MIT researchers focused on magnetically coupled resonators and thus wireless power transmission over few meters are possible. This method is one million times as efficient as electromagnetic induction systems. This method is also called non-radiative energy transfer, since it involves stationary fields around the coils rather than fields that spread in all direction.
RADIO AND MICROWAVE
If resonance is incorporated or not, induction generally sends wireless power over relatively short distance. For very long distance power transmission radio and microwaves are used. Japanese researcher YAGI developed a directional array antenna known as YAGI antenna for wireless energy transmission. It is widely used for broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission. Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range. A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, an antenna used to convert microwaves into DC power. Being that an antenna refers to any type of device that converts electromagnetic waves into electricity or vice versa. A rectenna is simply a microwave antenna. Inverse rectennas convert electricity into microwave beams, rectennas suitable for receiving energy beamed from solar panels in geocentric orbit would need to be several miles across. Although power densities of such an arrangement would be low enough to avoid any damage to people or the environment. Rectifying antennae are usually made an array of dipole antennae, which have positive and negative poles. These antennae connect to semiconductor diodes. Rectenna conversion has an efficiency of about 95%.
In the 1980s, Canada's Communications Research
Centre created a small airplane that could run off power beamed from the
Dept. ofEEE - 6- SNGCE, Kolenchery
Earth. The unmanned plane, called the Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP), was designed as a communications relay. Rather flying from point to point, the SHARP could fly in circles two kilometers in diameter at an altitude of about 13 miles (21 kilometers). Most importantly, the aircraft could fly for months at a time.
Fig. 4
The secret to the SHARP'S long flight time was a large, ground-based microwave transmitter. The SHARP'S circular flight path kept it in range of this transmitter. A large, disc-shaped rectifying antenna, or rectenna, just behind the plane's wings changed the microwave energy from the transmitter into direct-current (DC) electricity. Because of the microwaves interaction with the rectenna, the SHARP had a constant power supply as long as it was in range of a functioning microwave array. This arrangement functions according to the following procedure.
1. Microwaves, which are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, reach the dipole antennae.
2. The antennae collect the microwave energy and transmit it to the diodes.
3. The diodes act like switches that are open or closed as well as turnstiles that let electrons flow in only one direction. They direct the electrons to the rectenna's circuitry.
4. The circuitry routes the electrons to the parts and systems that need them.
Micro wave power transmission has some drawbacks:
» The solar power stations on the moon would require supervision and maintenance. In other words, the project would require sustainable, manned moon bases.
¢ Only part of the earth has a direct line of sight to the moon at any given time. To make sure the whole planet had a steady power supply, a network of satellites would have to re-direct the microwave energy.
¢ Many people would resist the idea of being constantly bathed in microwaves from space, even if the risk were relatively low.
LASER
Laser beams can be used for wireless power transmission. Power can be transmitted by converting electricity into laser beam. At the receiving side a solar cell receiver is used. But it has many drawbacks, they are given below
1. Conversion to light, such as with a laser, is moderately inefficient
2. Conversion back into electricity is moderately inefficient, with photovoltaic cells achieving 40%-50% efficiency
3. Atmospheric absorption causes losses.
4. This method requires a direct line of sight with the target.
WITRICITY IN HISTORY
Wireless power transmission is not a new idea. Nickola Tesla demonstrated transmission of electrical energy without wires in early 19th century. Tesla used electromagnetic induction systems. William C Brown demonstrated a micro wave powered model helicopter in 1964. This receives all the power needed for flight from a micro wave beam. In 1975 Bill Brown transmitted 30kW power over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency without using cables. Researchers developed several technique for moving electricity over long distance without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use.
Consider an example, in this electric devices recharging without any plug-in. The device which can be recharged is placed on a charger. Supply is given to the charger and there is no electrical contact between charger and device. The recharging takes place in following steps. 1. Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil inside the charger, creating a magnetic field. In a transformer, this coil is called the primary winding.
2. When the device placed on the charger, the magnetic field induces a current in another coil, or secondary winding, which connects to the battery.
3. This current recharges the battery.
Figure 6 shows an electric tooth brush's cut section. In consists of two windings primary and secondary. The primary winding is in the charger and the secondary winding is in the tooth brush. Figure 7 shows a camera and mobile placed on a charger for charging. By the use of this one or more devices can be charged at the same time.
An electric toothbrush's base
and handle contain coils that to
allow the battery to recharge
A Splash power mat uses induction recharge multiple devices Simultaneously
WITRICITY AT PRESENT
In 2006 MIT researchers discovered a new method to provide electricity to remote objects without wires. Wiricity is based on coupled resonant objects. In 2007 researchers implemented a prototype using self resonant coils. In this first experiment they demonstrated efficient non-radiative power transfer over distance up to eight times the radius of the coils. This experiment was done using two copper coils. Each coil act as self resonant system. One of the coils is attached to the electricity source. Instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves, it fills the space with a non-radiative magnetic field oscillating at MHz frequencies. The non-radiative field mediates the power exchange with the other coil, which is specially designed to resonate with the field. The resonant nature ensures strong interaction between sending unit and receiving unit.
In the first experiment they successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60W light bulb from a power source that was 2 meters away with 40% efficiency approximately. They used two capacitively loaded copper coils of 51 cm in diameter designed to resonate in the MHz range. One coil was connected to a power source, the other to a bulb. In this experiment the coils were designed to resonate at 10MHz. The setup powered the bulb oh even when the coils were not in line of sight. The bulb glowed even when wood, metal, and other devices were placed in between the coils.
Effect of using capacitively-loaded loops and lowering the operating frequency on field strengths and power levels.
Capacitively loaded loops generate significantly lower electric fields in the space surrounding the objects than self-resonant coils. The calculations to simulate a transfer of 60W across two identical capacitively-loaded loops similar in dimension to our self-resonant coils
(radius of loop 30cm, cross sectional radius of the conductor 3cm, and distance between the loops of 2m), and calculated the maximum values of the fields and Poynting Vector 20cm away from the device loop.
Erms Hrms Srms Power
Frequency(MHz) Efficiency {Vim) (A/m) (W/cm2) radiated(W)
10 83% ' 185 21 0.08 3.3
1 60% 40 14 0.04 0.005
At 10MHz, note the significant reduction in the electric field strength with respect to the self resonant coils. Lowering the operating frequency down to 1MHz further reduces the electric field, Poynting vector, and power radiated. At 1MHz, all our fields are below IEEE safety guidelines (Erms =614V/m, Hrms = 16.3A/m and Srms = 0.1 W/cm2 at 1MHz)
The figure given below shows the experimental setup. In which the transmitter and receiver coils are separated at a distance of 2m. The bulb connected to receiver coils is glowed when supply is given to transmitter coil as shown in figure. In the first figure transmitter and receiver coils are in direct line of sight. If a wooden piece is placed in between transmitter and receiver coils then also power transmission is possible.
Theoretical-and experimental K, as a function of distance when one of the coils is rotated by 45% with respect to coaxial alignment.
o o
I Fig. 13
I Alternative geometry.
ADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY
1. No need of line of sight - In witricity power transmission there is any ;
need of line of sight between transmitter and receiver. That is power !
transmission can be possible if there is any obstructions like wood,
metal, or other devices were placed in between the transmitter and
receiver.
2. No need of power cables and batteries - Witricity replaces the use of power cables and batteries.
3. Does not interfere with radio waves
4. Wastage of power is small - Electromagnetic waves would tunnel, they
would not propagate through air to be absorbed or dissipated. So the
wastage is small.
5. Negative heaiih implications - By the use of resonant coupling wave
lengths produced are far lower and thus make it harmless.
6. Highly efficient than electromagnetic induction - Electro magnetic induction system can be used for wireless energy transfer only if the primary and secondary are in very close proximity. Resonant induction system is one million times as efficient as electro magnetic induction system.
7. Less costly - The components of transmitter and receivers are cheaper. So this system is less costly.
DISADVANTAGES
1. Wireless power transmission can be possible only in few meters.
2. Efficiency is only about 40%.
As witricity is in development stage, lot of work is done for improving the efficiency and distance between transmitter and receiver.
APPLICATIONS
Witricity has a bright future in providing wireless electricity. There are no limitations in witiricity power applications. Some of the potential applications are pwering of cell phones, laptops and other devices that normally run with the help of batteries or plugging in wires. Witricity applications are expected to work on the gadgets that are in close proximity to a source of wireless 'power, where in the gadgets charges automatically without necessarily, having to get plugged in. By the use of witricity there is no need of batteries or remembering to recharge batteries periodically. If a source is placed in each room to provide power supply to the whole house
Witricity has many medical applications. It is used for providing electric power in many commercially available medical implantable devices.
Another application of this technology includes transmission of information. It would not interfere with radio waves and it is cheap and efficient.
CONCLUSION
Witricity is in development stage, lots of work is to be done to use it for wireless power applications. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100w. Before the establishment of this technology the detailed study must be done to check whether it cause any harm on any living beings.
REFERENCES
1. Sasthra Keralam magazine
2. Witricitypower.com
3. http://en.wikipedia.org
4. TreeHugger.com
5. http://www.howstuffworks.com


?
Q
16-10-2010, 03:08 PM
Post: #2
RE: witricity full report

Submitted By
RADHIKA,NAVATHA

[attachment=6289]


History of Wireless Power:
In 1899, Sir Nikola Tesla Proposed a method of Wireless Power Transmission.
As it is in Radiative mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency.
The efficient midrange power transfer concept is Witricity. In this model source and load are in Magnetic resonance so there is no power loss.

Need of Witricity:
Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all those devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wire less energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy.
?
Q
18-10-2010, 10:31 AM
Post: #3
RE: witricity full report
[attachment=6375]
This article is presented by:
E.NAVEEN KUMAR.
D.ARUN KUMAR REDDY
INTELL ENGINEERING COLLEGE ANANTAPUR
The Wireless Electricity


ABSTRACT:
Can we imagine the life without electrical wires? From now answer to this question is yes. The method proposed in the present paper called “Witricity “will facilitate to Transfer power without using wires. The efficient midrange power can be transmitted to any device which uses that range of power by the technique used in this Witricity concept.
Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all the above devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) .As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wireless energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy. This is the main reason to prepare this paper.
When two Magnetically Resonating objects at “Strongly coupled” regime tend to exchange energy efficiently by transfer of power in the non-radiating fields. This is the basic principle involved in it. By taking two coils having same magnetic resonance and one is coupled to source and other is coupled to Device. So that the energy transfer is efficient even the air gap between them is high.
This paper describes the basic history of wireless power transmission, what are Magnetic resonance and Strongly coupled regime, Experimental design, Range and rate of coupling (coupling calculations) and Design of parameters and Simulation for variation of power with and without the external object between source and load.
Historyof Wireless power:
Wireless power transmission is not new for us. Various methods of Transmitting power wirelessly have been known for centuries. In 1899, Sir Nikola Tesla proposed a method to transmit energy over long distances wirelessly using ElectroMagnetic radiation principle, but such radiation is excellent for wireless transmission of Information, it is not feasible to Power transmission.
?
Q

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